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Clinical Studies


This study provided strip meniscometry test values from dogs with normal eyes and eyes with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, with high sensitivity and specificity compared with those of the Schirmer tear test 1.

Comparison of strip meniscometry and Schirmer tear test results and tear film breakup time between healthy dogs and dogs with dry eye disease

"To compare strip meniscometry and Schirmer tear test 1 results and tear film breakup time between dogs with normal eyes and dogs diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Methods: One-hundred fifty-six eyes of 78 dogs, 88 normal eyes, and 68 eyes diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca were included in the study. The tests were performed in the following sequence: Schirmer tear test 1 was used to allocate the dogs to the normal or keratoconjunctivitis sicca group, followed by the strip meniscometry test and tear film breakup time measurement."

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Signs of KCS

Clinical signs of brachycephalic ocular syndrome in 93 dogs

"Brachycephalic breeds have anatomical skull changes that are responsible for ocular clinical signs,known as the brachycephalic ocular syndrome (BOS). Their popularity has increased in recent years but the excessive pressure of selection lead to extreme conformation of skull shapes, resulting in facial alterations that can put these dogs’ vision at risk."

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Pilot Study

Reference values for selected dry eye tests in normal Beagle dogs: a pilot study

"Data obtained in this study provided normative references that could be useful for diagnosing DED and for further research into correlation between DETs in dogs with DED."

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I-TEAR® Test

Strip Meniscometry Correlates With Ocular Surface Tests and Symptoms

"Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dry eye disease (DED)–related signs and symptoms with two tear function tests."

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Rheology is the science of deformation of material

Role of rheology in tears and artificial tears

"The study of viscoelastic fluids as artificial tears dates back to the late 1970s. Healon, the first ophthalmic viscosurgical device, was approved in 1980, but studied extensively before then, exhibits very interesting shear-thinning properties that were found to be beneficial in both ophthalmic surgery and somewhat later as a tear replacement solution. Unlike the previous tear film replacements, which were mainly viscous in nature, viscoelastic solutions, particularly those based on hyaluronan, exhibited very interesting, potentially beneficial, rheological properties, especially when slightly altered to become elastoviscous. This review examines the rheological properties that are significant in artificial tear solutions. We define herein the necessary parameters that need to be further studied to design and formulate rheologically better artificial tears, which should provide enhanced efficacy compared with their predecessors."

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Medical grade and high molecular weight HA will have a substantial effect on the quality of an eye drop

Why Chain Length of Hyaluronan in Eye Drops Matters

"The chain length of hyaluronan (HA) determines its physical as well as its physiological properties. Results of clinical research on HA eye drops are not comparable without this parameter. In this article methods for the assessment of the average molecular weight of HA in eye drops and a terminology for molecular weight ranges are proposed."

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I-TEAR® Test

A novel strip meniscometry method for measuring aqueous tear volume in dogs: Clinical correlations with the Schirmer tear and phenol red thread tests

"The strip meniscometry test (SMT) is a novel method for quantitative measurement of tear volume with only five seconds. We aimed to evaluate clinical correlations of SMT with the gold standard Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test (PRT) in dogs, including normal and tear- deficient eyes."

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Dry Eye can be due to a lack of either three layers of the tear film

Immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs: current perspectives on management

"Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a frequent canine ophthalmic disease, resulting from the deficiency of one or more elements in the precorneal tear film. There are different known causes of KCS in dogs, including congenital, metabolic, infectious, drug induced, neurogenic, radiation, iatrogenic, idiopathic, and immune mediated, though the last one is the most prevalent form in dogs."

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There are two types of KCS: quantitative and qualitative

Dry Eye in Dogs: When Good Glands Go Bad

"Dry eye, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is a common condition in dogs characterized by decreased tear production that most often results from idiopathic lacrimal gland inflammation with secondary glandular atrophy."

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Selective breeding and KCS

Pug appeal: brachycephalic ocular health

"Ophthalmic disease is common in brachycephalic breeds as a consequence of selective breeding for the more extreme conformation. As a result of shallow orbits and prominent globes with poor corneal sensation, ulcerative keratitis is common in these breeds. Prompt diagnosis of a corneal ulcer and aggressive management is often required in order to preserve vision and prevent loss of an eye. Appropriate treatments are detailed including medical and surgical options. Surgery is commonly indicated to repair a cornea or preserve a globe, and eyelid conformation modifying surgery is frequently recommended to improve ocular health."

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HSM lenses

A Risk-Benefit Analysis of using Heparin to Coat Intraocular Lenses

"The benefits to patients receiving heparin-coated lenses as compared to the same models of uncoated lenses is now sufficiently well documented and substantial enough to indicate that all lenses implanted in the future should be heparin-coated in order to render them more biocompatible."

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I-TEAR® Test and the Schirmer Tear Test

Comparative Tests of the Canine Tear Film Using the I-TEAR® Test and the Schirmer Tear Test

I-TEAR® Test is a clinically valid assessment of the canine pre-corneal tear film.

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An Often Overlooked Diagnosis

Diagnosis & Treatment of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca in Dogs

"Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a relatively common condition in dogs. Although KCS can be diagnosed readily with a thorough ophthalmic examination, the diagnosis is often overlooked. KCS is an inflammatory condition of the cornea and conjunctiva, secondary to a deficiency of the precorneal tear film (PTF)."

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Medical-grade and high molecular weight HA will have a substantial effect on the quality of an eye drop

A Crosslinked HA-Based Hydrogel Ameliorates Dry Eye Symptoms in Dogs

"Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, commonly referred to as dry eye or KCS, can affect both humans and dogs. The standard of care in treating KCS typically includes daily administration of eye drops to either stimulate tear production or to hydrate and lubricate the corneal surface."

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Qualitative Dry Eye is when there is a lack of the lipid layer, Qualitative Dry Eye is when there is a lack of the aqueous layer

Qualitative and quantitative tear film abnormalities in dogs

"Tear film disorders in dogs can be classified into quantitative or qualitative abnormalities, or both, and are commonly observed in daily clinical practice. Inadequate production of one or more tear film components can lead to variable degrees of ocular disorders, called keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs has several causes, but in most cases the disease is idiopathic, with T lymphocytes playing a role. In veterinary medicine, the diagnosis is made based on the results of the Schirmer tear test. In this article, we review aspects related to the etiopathogenesis and diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs and discuss new therapeutic modalities for this disease."

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